This year marks the 75th anniversary of the evacuation of Allied troops from Dunkirk. The operation, codenamed 'Operation Dynamo' which took place between 27 May and 4 June 1940, is one of the most celebrated military events in British history. The German and Allied armies had faced each other across the Franco German border for over six months, a period often known as the Phoney War. On 10 May 1940 the German army began its offensive in the West and within ten days it had reached the Channel at Abbeville, splitting the Allied armies in two and leaving the British Expeditionary Force (BEF) in danger of being trapped in Belgium. In the event the BEF was able pull back and fight a series of rear-guard actions to the Dunkirk area, where a total of 338,226 Allied troops were dramatically rescued by a combination of navy ships and hundreds of little boats.
|Battle of Dunkirk Memorial|
67th Field Regiment, Royal Artillery
Amongst those rescued from the beaches of Dunkirk were men from Worcestershire's 67th Field Regiment, Royal Artillery. Several men were interviewed in 1995 as part of the then Hereford and Worcester Record Office's World War II oral history project, just ahead of some of them returning to the beaches to attend various ceremonies. The men vividly recalled their experiences on the road to Dunkirk, at the beaches and on board ship.
Fighting the rear-guard action
Frank Price's gun crew were asked to take up anti-tank positions as part of the rear guard action and were then gradually pulled back to De Panne a town on the Belgian coast further up from Dunkirk and then into France. They eventually ended up at Dunkirk having spiked their gun so it could not be reused by the Germans
At the beaches
Tom Averill recalled that upon reaching the beaches he and his men marched up and down between Dunkirk and Bray Dunes trying without success to find a boat to take them home. Eventually they returned to Dunkirk to find a ship moored at the East Mole. The ship turned out to be HMS Worcester which Tom took to be a good sign. The ship was bombed on the journey back, but Tom and his men survived the journey, though others on board were not so lucky.
For Frank and his crew too the evacuation was far from plain sailing. Having finally reached Dunkirk they managed to board HMS Esk. The ship had to stop part of the way through their journey to rescue some French soldiers whose ship had been bombed.
The Little Ships
Hundreds of small privately owned boats took part in the evacuation from Dunkirk. Anything that could float and could cross the channel made its way to Dunkirk to aid the evacuation and 'the little ships' played a crucial role ferrying men from the shallow inshore waters to the larger vessels waiting off the beaches. Gordon, a schoolboy living at Twickenham, recalled seeing a flotilla of small boats assembling at Teddington but not knowing why.
Another interviewee, who was a schoolboy living at Broadstairs at the time remembered hearing rumours of soldiers coming off boats at Ramsgate and went down to the harbour to investigate. One of his friends disappeared for three days and he later discovered that the boy and his father had been out in their boat rescuing soldiers from Dunkirk.
Click here to read a description of the soldiers returning to Ramsgate from Dunkirk by an anonymous contributor
Churchill's 'We shall fight on the beaches speech'
On 4 June 1940 the Prime Minister, Winston Churchill, went to the House of Commons to report on the outcome of the Dunkirk evacuation and the military situation in general. Although the nation rejoiced that so many had been rescued, Churchill was keen to emphasise that the successful rescue of so many troops was not a victory and counselled that 'Wars are not won by evacuations.' As part of his report to the House he delivered his famous 'We shall fight on the Beaches' speech.
To read other stories about Operation Dynamo and the Dunkirk evacuations follow the link to the BBC's WW2 People's War website.
50th Anniversary commemorations 1990
Several of the 67th Field Regiment returned over the years to the area from which they were evacuated and took part in commemorations, especially those for the 50th anniversary of the evacuations. Frank Price recalled in particular returning to De Panne for many years as a member of the Dunkirk Veterans Association.
|De Panne 50th anniversary commemorations, May 1990|
|March past in De Panne, May 1990|
75th anniversary of the Dunkirk evacuations 2015These next two weeks mark the 75th anniversary of the planning and execution of Operation Dynamo. As part of the 75th commemorations members of the Association of Little Ships have sailed from Ramsgate to take part in various commemorative events over the bank holiday weekend.
For more information see:
- Operation Dynamo 75th Anniversary website
- Dunkirk and French Flanders Tourism details of 75th anniversary celebrations
- Association of Dunkirk Little Ships 75th anniversary details
For further information generally about the Dunkirk evacuations and Operation Dynamo see:
- Military History of War Encyclopedia on the Web feature on Operation Dynamo
- Wikipedia Article on HMS Worcester (D96)
- The Imperial War Museum's feature on Dunkirk
Written by M Tohill
Photographs copyright of M Tohill